Water Level Controller using 8051 Microcontroller







Water level controller is equipment used to control the water level in a field. The level of the water is controlled by using a microcontroller. Main components are PIC micro controller, sensor, motor etc. The sensors sense the presence of water and give indication to the microcontroller. The microcontroller produces the control signals to drive the motor. If there is no water then microcontroller gives control signal to start the motor and if there is sufficient water in the field then the microcontroller give control signal to stop the motor. And also the microcontroller enables the display and displayed as “THE MOTOR IS ON” when the motor starts and disable the display when the motor is off. Hence the level of water in a field can be automatically controlled. The main components used in this equipment are PIC microcontroller, sensor and motor

SENSOR

Here the sensor used is the two conductors placed in the field. If there is water then the conduction occurs between the two conductors, which closes a circuit to the microcontroller and microcontroller detects the intensity of water in the field. If there is no conduction microcontroller detects that water is in the field. If there is no conduction microcontroller detects absence of water.

MICROCONTROLLER

Pic16c73so microcontroller is employed. The PIC microcontroller detects the indication from the sensor. The microcontroller produces controls signal to the drive the motor according to the indication and enables the display. The motor is controlled by a relay mechanism.

MOTOR

Motor is controlled by the microcontroller the microcontroller switching the power supply to motor by relay mechanism. The motor employed is DC motor which has high starting torque and constant speed.

DISPLAY

16*2 LCD display is used. The present state of the motor is displayed on the display.

Block Diagram of Water Level Controller

Circuit Diagram of Water Level Controller

Pin Diagram of PIC16C73-SO Micro controller

PCB Layout of Water Level Controller

Component Layout of PCB, Water Level Controller

LCD Connecting diagram of Water Level Controller

LCD

Short for liquid crystal display, a type of display used in digital watches and many portable computers. LCD displays utilize two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between them. An electric current passed through the liquid causes the crystals to align so that light cannot pass through them. Each crystal, therefore, is like a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking the light. Monochrome LCD images usually appear as blue or dark gray images on top of a grayish-white background. Color LCD displays use two basic techniques for producing color: Passive matrix is the less expensive of the two technologies. The other technology, called thin film transistor (TFT) or active-matrix, produces color images that are as sharp as traditional CRT displays, but the technology is expensive. Recent passive-matrix displays using new CSTN and DSTN technologies produce sharp colors rivaling active-matrix displays.

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PIC (Peripheral Interface Controller)

PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface Controller". PICs are popular with developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability

PIC16C73-so

The PIC16C73 is an EPROM-based microcontroller with an integrated Analog-to-Digital Converter. This easy- to- program (only 35 single word instructions) device contains 4096x14 words of program memory, 192 bytes of user RAM and 5 MIPS performance @ 20MHz. In addition to the 5-channel 8-bit A/D converter, this peripheral-rich device includes Brown-Out-Reset (BOR), Power-On-Reset (POR), three timer/counters, two Capture/Compare/PWM modules and two serial ports. The synchronous Serial Port can be configured as either a 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI™) or the 2-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit (I²C™) bus. This device also features a Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) which is also known as a Serial Communications Interface (SCI). The PIC16C73 has 22 I/O pins with 25mA source/sink per I/O. PIC16C73 fits perfectly in applications from security and remote sensors to appliance control and automotive.

DC Motor

DC motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets1. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotors (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotate with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets. The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. Given our example two-pole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, driving it to continue rotating.

DC Motor Operation

Software Command Code

#define RS PORTD.F0
#define EN PORTD.F1
#define RW PORTD.F2
//PORTC.F0 is used for sensor rod
#define MOTOR PORTC.F2

//-----------------------Lcd comd----------
void lcdcmd(unsigned char cmd)
{
RS=0;
PORTB=cmd;
EN=0;
Delay_Ms(2);
EN=1;
Delay_Ms(50);
}

//-----------------------Lcd data----------
void lcddata(unsigned char data)
{
RS=1;
PORTB=data;
EN=0;
Delay_Ms(2);
EN=1;
Delay_Ms(50);
}
//-----------------------Device init------
void DeviceInit(void)
{
TRISB=0x00;
TRISD=0x00;
TRISC=0x01;
PORTB=0x00;
PORTD=0x00;
PORTC=0x00;
}

//---------------------Lcd init----------
void LcdInit(void)
{
RW=0;
lcdcmd(0x38);
lcdcmd(0x38);
lcdcmd(0x38);
lcdcmd(0x0C);
lcdcmd(0x06);
lcdcmd(0x01);
}

//---------------------msg---------------
void mess(unsigned char name[])
{
unsigned char i=0;
while(name[i]!='\0')
{
lcddata(name[i]);
i++;
}
}
//------------------Main fun-------------

void main(void)
{
DeviceInit();
LcdInit();
while(1)
{
while(!PORTC.F0)
{
MOTOR=1;
LcdInit();
mess(" motor on");
Delay_Ms(50);
}
MOTOR=0;
LcdInit();
mess(" motor off");
Delay_Ms(50);
}
}


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