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Biothermal Production Seminar Report

More than 10 billion tons of fossil fuels (oil equivalent) are annually consumed in the world and these fuels are known causes of acid rain, photochemical smog, and the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Researchers warn that the rise in the earth‘s temperature resulting from increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is likely to be at least 1oC and perhaps as much as 4oC if the CO2 concentration doubles from pre-industrial levels during the 21st century. A second global problem is the likely depletion of fossil fuels in several decades even though new oil resources are continually being discovered. To address these issues, alternative fuel resources need to be identified.

Stabilizing the earth‘s climate depends on reducing carbon emissions by shifting from fossil fuels to direct or indirect use of solar energy. Among the alternatives, use of biofuel is most beneficial because the solar energy that produces biomass is the final sustainable energy resource. Besides, it reduces atmospheric CO2 through photosynthesis and carbon sequestration. Even though combustion produces CO2, it does not increase total global CO2. Liquid fuels, especially biomethanol, provide petroleum fuel alternatives for various engines and machines. Biomethanol can be managed to eliminate output of soot and SO. In terms of storage, it ranks next to petroleum, and is far easier to store than batteries, natural gas, and hydrogen. The necessary raw materials for bioethanol (another promising biofuel) production by fermentation, however, are obtained from crop plants with high sugar or high starch content. Since these crops are primary sources of human nutrition, their use in biofuel production is controversial at a time when the demand for such crop increases with the rising global population rates. This paper presents various production methods of bio methanol, and also compares different methods and raw materials.

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