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Cardanol Bio Fuel Seminar Report
Bio fuels derived from non-edible oils is considered as a renewable alternative to the fossil diesel. The cost of the biodiesel is higher than diesel and hence in this work, cardanol was used as an alternative renewable fuel for the diesel engine. The engine tests were conducted on a double cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine. From the engine tests, it is observed that the brake power increases (by 70% approximately) as load increases. Brake specific energy conversion decreases (by 25-30% approximately) with increase in brake power. Brake thermal efficiency increases with higher brake power and emission levels (HC, CO, NOX) were nominal up to 20% blends.
The internal combustion engines have already become an indispensable and integral part of our present day life style, particularly in the transportation and agricultural sectors which collectively form not only one of the main consumers of fossil fuels but also one of the major contributors to environmental pollution. Thus, automotive, truck and non-road engines/vehicles constitute an important field, where the use of alternative fuels emerges as a very promising, long- term, alternative solution in order to achieve the desired diversification from petroleum products .The world is presently facing with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum-based fuels. Petroleum-based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing energy/foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum. Also the world reserves of primary energy and raw materials are obviously limited. According to an estimate the reserves will last for 218 years for coal, 41 years for oil, and 63 years for natural gas , Hence the prices of crude oil keep rising andfluctuating on a daily basis. So it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from resources available locally within the country and renewable, such as alcohol, biodiesel, vegetable oils etc. which promise a very good relation with sustainable development, energy conservation, efficiency and environmental preservation. The fuels of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to this worldwide petroleum crisis. Various bio fuel energy resources explored include biomass, biogas, primary alcohols, vegetable oils, biodiesel etc.
The name bio-diesel was introduced in the United States during 1992 by the National Soy Diesel Development Board (presently National Bio-diesel Board) which has pioneered the commercialization of bio diesel in the US. Bio-fuels are fuels produced by a number of chemical / biological processes from biological materials like plants, agricultural wastes etc, Bio fuel is a source of renewable energy. Bio diesel can be used as a pure fuel or blended with petroleum diesel depending on the economics and emissions without any engine modifications.
There are many tree species which bear seeds which is rich in oil and having properties of an excellent fuel and which can be processed as a diesel substitute. One of the most promising fuel alternatives is the vegetable oils and their derivatives. Plenty of scientific articles and research activities from around the world were printed and recorded. Oils from coconut, soy bean, sunflower, safflower, peanut, linseed and palm were used depending on what country they grow abundantly. It has been reported that in diesel engines vegetable oils can be used as fuel, straight as well as in blends with the diesel. It is evident that there are various problems associated with vegetable oils being used as fuel in compression ignition engines, mainly caused by their high viscosity. The high viscosity is due to the molecular mass and chemical structure of vegetable oils, which in turn leads the problems in pumping, combustion and atomization in the injector system of diesel engine. Due to the high viscosity, vegetable oils normally introduce the development of gumming, the formation of injector deposits, ring sticking as well as incompatibility with conventional lubricating oils in long- term operations.
The use of edible oil for production of bio-fuel will create scarcity in food production. So it is recommended to use non-edible oils in bio-fuel production. Of these some important varieties are Jatropha, Neem, Mahua etc. And the performance of Jatropha and other oils as blends with diesel as well their esters, have been well established and documented as Internal Combustion (IC) Engine fuels. This paper is based on a new variety of bio-fuel extracted from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CSNL) called Cardanol.
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