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Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Seminar Report
Harvesting ambient mechanical energy at the nanometer scale holds great promises for powering small electronics and achieving self-powered electronic devices. The self-powering capability allows electronic device packages to exclude bulky energy storage components and makes possible forgoing the inclusion of bulky battery components. Recent development of nanogenerators (NGs) has demonstrated a possible solution for the design of self-sufficient power source that directly draws energy from ambient mechanical resources. Piezoelectric nanowires (NWs) are the building blocks of NGs. In this review paper, theoretical calculations and experimental characterization methods for predicting or determining the piezoelectric potential output of NWs are reviewed first.
Representative models of NGs are then discussed for harvesting mechanical energy from highfrequency acoustic waves and low-frequency vibrations/frictions. A numerical calculation is also presented to estimate the energy output from NW-based NGs. In this paper the working of a fully stand-alone, self-powered environmental sensor driven by nanogenerators with harvesting vibration energy, is demonstrated. Such a system is made of a ZnO nanowire-based nanogenerator, a rectification circuit, a capacitor for charge storage, a signal transmission LED light and a carbon nanotube-based Hg2+ ion sensor. The circuit lights up the LED indicator when it detects mercury ions in water solution. It is the first demonstration of a nanomaterial-based, self-powered sensor system for detecting a toxic pollutant.
Piezoelectric Nanogenerator is an energy harvesting device converting the external kinetic energy into an electrical energy based on the energy conversion by nano-structured piezoelectric material. Although its definition may include any types of energy harvesting devices with nano-structure converting the various types of the ambient energy (e.g. solar power and thermal energy), it is used in most of times to specifically indicate the kinetic energy harvesting devices utilizing nano-scaled piezoelectric material.
Although still in the early stage of the development, it has been regarded as a potential breakthrough toward the further miniaturization of the conventional energy harvester, possibly leading the facile integration with the other types of energy harvester converting the different types of energy and the independent operation of mobile electronic devices with the reduced concerns for the energy source, consequently.
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