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Branch : ECE, CSEIC
Clockless chips are electronic chips that are not using clock for timing signal. They are implemented in asynchronous circuits. An asynchronous circuit is a circuit in which the parts are largely autonomous. They are not governed by a clock circuit or global clock signal, but instead need only wait for the signals that indicate completion of instructions and operations. These signals are specified by simple data transfer protocols. This digital logic design is contrasted with a synchronous circuit which operates according to clock timing signals.
The term asynchronous logic is used to describe a variety of design styles, which use different assumptions about circuit properties. These vary from the bundled delay model - which uses 'conventional' data processing elements with completion indicated by a locally generated delay model - to delay-insensitive design - where arbitrary delays through circuit elements can be accommodated. The latter style tends to yield circuits which are larger and slower than synchronous (or bundled data) implementations, but which are insensitive to layout and parametric variations and are thus "correct by design."
The electrochemical ultracapacitor is an emerging technology that promises to play
an important role in meeting the demands of electronic devices and systems both
now and in the future. This newly available technology of ultracapacitors is
making it easier for engineers to balance their use of both energy and power.
Energy storage devices like ultracapacitors are normally used along with batteries
to compensate for the limited battery power capability. Evidently, the proper
control of the energy storage systems presents both a challenge and opportunity for
the power and energy management system. This paper traces the history of the
development of the technology and explores the principles and theory of operation
of the ultracapacitors.
The use of ultracapacitors in various applications are discussed and their advantages over alternative technologies are considered. To provide examples with which to outline practical implementation issues, systems incorporating ultracapacitors as vital components are also explored. This paper has aimed to provide a brief overview of ultracapacitor technology as it stands today. Previous development efforts have been described to place the current state of the technology within an historical context. Scientific background has also been covered in order to better understand performance characteristics.
Branch : Mech
For years, the trusty seat belt provided the sole form of passive restraint in our cars. There were debated about their safety, especially relating to children. But over time, mush of the country adopted mandatory seat-belt laws. Statistics have shown that the use of seat belts has saved thousands of lives that might have been lost in collisions.
Air Bags have been under development for many years. The attraction of a soft pillow to land against in a crash must be very strong – the first patent on an inflatable crash-landing device for airplanes was filed during World War II. In the 1980’s the first commercial air bags appeared in automobiles.
Since 1988, all new cars have been required to have air bags on both driver and passenger sides (Light Trucks came under the rule in 1999). To date, Statistics show that air bags reduce the risk of dying in a direct frontal crash by 30 percent. Newer than steering Wheel mounted or Dashboardmounted bags, but not so widely used, are seat-mounted and door mounted side air-bags. Some experts say that within the next few years, our cars will go from having dual air bags top having six or even eight air bags. Having evoked some of the controversy that surrounded seat-belt use in its early years, air bags are the subject of serious government and industry research and tests.
Branch : ECE, EEE
A major problem facing Planet Earth is provision of an adequate supply of clean energy. It has been that we face “...three simultaneous challenges -- population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation -- all converging particularly in the matter of sustainable energy supply.” It is widely agreed that our current energy practices will not provide for all the world's peoples in an adequate way and still leave our Earth with a livable environment. Hence, a major task for the new century will be to develop sustainable and environmentally friendly sources of energy.
Projections of future energy needs over this new century show an increase by a factor of at least two and one Half, perhaps by as much as a factor of five. All of the scenarios from reference 3 indicate continuing use of fossil sources, nuclear, and large hydro. However, the greatest increases come from "new renewables" and all scenarios show extensive use of these sources by 2050. Indeed, the projections indicate that the amount of energy derived from new renewables by 2050 will exceed that presently provided by oil and gas combined. This would imply a major change in the world’s energy infrastructure. It will be a Herculean task to acquire this projected amount of energy. This author asserts that there are really only a few good options for meeting the additional energy needs of the new century in an environmentally acceptable way.
Branch : ECE, EEE, IC, CSE
The cam has been an integral part of the IC engine from its invention. The cam controls the ³breathing channels´ of the IC engines, that is, the valves through which the fuel air mixture (in SI engines) or air (in CI engines) is supplied and exhaust driven out. Besieged by demands for better fuel economy, more power, and less pollution, motor engineers around the world are pursuing a radical ³camless´ design that promises to deliver the internal ± combustion engine¶s biggest efficiency improvement in years. The aim of all this effort is liberation from a constraint that has handcuffed performance since the birth of the internal-combustion engine more than a century ago. Camless engine technology is soon to be a reality for commercial vehicles. In the camless valve train, the valve motion is controlled directly by a valve actuator ± there¶s no camshaft or connecting mechanisms .Precise electrohydraulic camless valve train controls the valve operations, opening, closing etc. The seminar looks at the working of the electrohydraulic camless engine, its general features and benefits over conventional engines. The engines powering today¶s vehicles, whether they burn gasoline or diesel fuel, rely on a system of valves to admit fuel and air to the cylinders and let exhaust gases escape after combustion. Rotating steel camshafts with precision -machined eggshaped lobes, or cams, are the hard-tooled ³brains´ of the system. They push open the valves at the proper time and guide their closure, typically through an arrangement of pushrods, rocker arms, and other hardware. Stiff springs return the valves to their closed position. In an overhead - camshaft engine, a chain or belt driven by the crankshaft turns one or two camshafts located atop the cylinder head.
Branch : ECE, EEE, Mech
A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending there from and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.
Branch : ECE, EEE, Mech
Every day, the sun radiates (sends out) an enormous amount of energy called solar energy. It radiates more energy in one second than the world has used since time began. This energy comes from within the sun itself.
Like most stars, the sun is a big gas ball made up mostly of hydrogen and helium gas. The sun makes energy in its inner core in a process called nuclear fusion. Only a small part of the solar energy that the sun radiates into space ever reaches the earth, but that is more than enough to supply all our energy needs. Every day enough solar energy reaches the earth to supply our nations energy needs for a year!
Branch : ECE, EEE
A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way digital technology to control appliances at consumers' homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. It is capable of assessing its health in real-time, predicting its behavior, anticipatory behavior, adaptation to new environments, handling distributed resources, stochastic demand, and optimal response to the smart appliances. It is a tool that allows electric utilities to focus on evolving true business drivers by enabling cost containment, end-to-end power delivery control, and a more secure infrastructure.
Branch : ECE, CSE
Smarter Space Management System(SSMS) is an computer aided automation system for a Carrying and Forwarding agent.
Maintaining manual records at a warehouse can be a tedious job, leading to discrepancy in client work rules. Moreover, the customers have no method to manage/access their booked space, or view their transaction. A computer aided system can make managing a warehouse an easy task. Transaction records can easily be maintained and reports generated.
Branch : Mech
When objects move through air, forces are generated by the relative motion between the air and surfaces of the object. Aerodynamics is the study of these forces, generated by the motion of air, usually aerodynamics are categorized according to the type of flow as subsonic, hypersonic, supersonic etc.
It is essential that aerodynamics be taken in to account during the design of cars as an improved aerodynamics in car would attain higher speeds and more fuel efficiency. For attaining this aerodynamic design the cars are designed lower to the ground and are usually sleek in design and almost all corners are rounded off, to ensure smooth passage of air through the body , in addition to it a number of enhancements like spoilers, wings are also attached to the cars for improving aerodynamics. Wind tunnels are used for analyzing the aerodynamics of cars , besides this a number of software‟s are also available now days to ensure the optimal aerodynamic design.